Basophil Activation Test (BAT)
The Basophil Activation Test (BAT) an in vivo allergic reaction in a safe blood collection tube. The basophils are the allergic cells present in the human blood and are easily accessible by drawing a sample of venous blood from an individual. Each suspected allergen, like PEG, can be tested in a BAT by adding the allergen to a small amount of blood and incubating it with a dedicated stimulation buffer. A specific basophil activation by the allergen typically results in the basophils degranulation with the release of pro-inflammatory mediators as well as the expression of activation markers. The BAT test takes the advantages of the flow cytometry technique to identify basophils directly in whole blood without the need of cell separation and to quantify the percentage of activated cells by the expression of such activation markers like CD63.
The Basophil Activation Test is a reliable biomarker for potential hypersensitivity reactions of potential allergenic substances in vivo and represents a safe and accurate allergy test requiring a blood sample from an individual only.